### University of Waterloo Local Programming Contest, Sept '14

## Problem A: XOR

Given two integers `S` and `F`, what is the
XOR (exclusive-or) of
all numbers between `S` and `F` (inclusive)?

### Input Specification

The first line of input is the integer `T`, which is the number of
test cases (1 ≤ `T` ≤ 1000).

`T` lines follow, with each line containing two integers `S`
and `F`
(1 ≤ `S` ≤ `F` ≤ 1,000,000,000).

### Output Specification

For each test case, output the (decimal) value of the XOR of all numbers
between `S` and `F`, inclusive.

### Sample Input

5 3 10 5 5 13 42 666 1337 1234567 89101112

### Sample Output

8 5 39 0 89998783

All Submissions

Best Solutions

**Point Value:** 7

**Time Limit:** 2.00s

**Memory Limit:** 16M

**Added:** Nov 10, 2014

**Languages Allowed:**

C++03, PAS, C, HASK, ASM, RUBY, PYTH2, JAVA, PHP, SCM, CAML, PERL, C#, C++11, PYTH3

## Comments (Search)

It's quiet in here...